Pictorial Press Ltd/Alamy
Commemorations have slowly become more muted over the years due to the racist and misogynistic aspects of his rule
Suez canal: a key trade route since the mid-19th century.
Pictorial Press Ltd / Alamy Stock Photo
Britain’s preoccupation with the canal was as much about controlling Egypt as it was about global trade.
Patients of the Imperial asylum at Vincennes celebrate Emperor Napoléon III.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
In 19th-century France, even photographs of hospitals and bridges could become propaganda.
Iconoclasm: the beheading of the English king, Charles I, in January 1649.
The polarisation of today’s political discourse has echoes of the intolerance that characterised the Puritan era and the French Revolution.
The poet in a picture by Gustave Courbet.
His legacy connects a great swathe of modern popular culture.
The Seine and Notre Dame, physically and spiritually the heart of Paris.
Iakov Kalinin via Shutterstock
From coronations to Revolution to reconciliation, Notre Dame has witnessed nearly 900 years of French history.
A Soviet-era stamp depicts a scene from Leo Tolstoy’s ‘War and Peace.’
Set during Napoleon's invasion of Russia, the epic novel is a case study in the grassroots strength of ordinary people.
Striking at the heart of the French Republic.
Terror on July 14 is a clear rejection of the values of the French Republic.
MASH TV cast.
The story of an amazing man you have probably never heard of.
Napoleon victorious at the 1805 Battle of Austerlitz.
François Gérard via Wikimedia Commons
A historian responds to Boris Johnson’s claim that the EU is pursuing a powerful super-state, like Hitler.
Blockade of Toulon by Thomas Luny.
The British blockade of France wouldn’t have worked if it wasn’t for an ingenious experiment conducted half a century earlier.
at a reconstruction of the Battle of Borodino.
The BBC’s chief contribution to the bicentenary has been to rename itself the Bonapartist Broadcasting Corporation.
The Field of Waterloo by Joseph Turner (c.1817)
When word reached the Scottish writer of Napoleon’s famous defeat, he promptly travelled to the continent to bear witness to the carnage first-hand
David Wilkie, Chelsea Pensioners Reading the Waterloo Dispatch, 1822.
How did the bulk of those at home in Britain find out the news of Waterloo?
‘The sorest stroke any Cavalry Regiment has suffered at one day’s fighting since the memory of man.’
Scotland forever! – Elizabeth Thompson
From Belgium to Moscow to Helmland: how one battle helped shape how we think of war.
Napoleon’s step-daughter Hortense and his second wife Marie-Louise.
Two centuries on, the history of the battle and our understanding of it should by no means be a predominantly male affair.
Napoleon’s Return from Elba: dramatic enough.
If you’d taken a trip to the theatre in 1815 Paris, chances are that the stage would be political.
Joseph Beaume, Napoleon Bonaparte leaving Elba, 26 February 1815.
On February 26, 200 years ago, Napoleon escaped from exile on the island of Elba. In some ways, this moment was more important than his eventual fall.
Volunteer Corps in Action.
In 1810, after seven years of the Napoleonic Wars, the prime minister, Lord Liverpool, penned a memorandum stating that Britain’s military was: “as large a force … as the Population and Finances of the…