The goal of mRNA technology is to harness the power of the cell to potentially prevent infections and treat diseases.
This microscopy image shows a cytotoxic T cell (blue) attacking a cancer cell (green) by releasing toxic chemicals (red).
Alex Ritter and Jennifer Lippincott Schwartz and Gillian Griffiths/National Institutes of Health via Flickr
T cells recognize and kill cancer cells but quickly lose their effectiveness. This fast dysfunction may help explain why immunotherapy doesn’t lead to long-term remission for many patients.
Gain-of-function experiments in the lab can help researchers get ahead of viruses naturally gaining the ability to infect people in the wild.
KTSDesign/Science Photo Library via Getty Images
From cancer immunotherapy and antibiotics to GMO crops and pandemic surveillance, gain of function is a cornerstone of basic research.
Most tumors are made up of many different kinds of cancer cells, as shown in this pancreatic cancer sample from a mouse.
Ravikanth Maddipati/Abramson Cancer Center at the University of Pennsylvania via National Cancer Institute
There is no one-size-fits-all approach to treating cancer. Understanding how cancer cells evolve could help researchers develop more effective drugs.
Moderna is testing an mRNA vaccine in combination with pembrolizumab to treat melanoma.
Javier Zayas Photography/Moment via Getty Images
Preventive and therapeutic vaccines both train the immune system to fight disease, but they are used in different ways.
Killer T cells (green and red), or cytotoxic T cells, surround a cancer cell (blue, center).
Immunotherapy has the potential to eliminate tumors, but works best for select patients. Engineering T cells to bypass cancer’s defenses could help expand treatment eligibility to more patients.
Many stage 4 breast cancer patients say that they don’t relate with the pink ribbon.
AnthiaCumming/E+ via Getty Images
October is awash in seas of pink T-shirts, balloons and ribbons in honor of Breast Cancer Awareness Month. But this messaging fails to recognize people who are not cured of the disease.
Dendritic cells (green) produce cytokines like IL-12, which can train T cells (pink) to attack tumors.
Victor Segura Ibarra and Rita Serda/National Cancer Institute via Flickr
One promising cancer treatment has been in the works for decades, but severe side effects have kept it out of the clinic. A reengineered version may offer a way to safely harness its potent effects.
Not all tumours can be detected by the body’s immune system.
Peddalanka Ramesh Babu/ Shutterstock
The parasite which causes toxoplasmosis has shown promise in treating difficult tumours in mice.
Delivering DNA to immune cells is the trickiest part of developing new gene-based therapies.
Researchers are trying to boost the power of our immune system by genetically altering our white blood cells and transforming them into super-soldiers to fight cancer.
For developing countries in Africa immunotherapy solutions is important given the high cost of cancer drugs.
Most cancer research has been done in Europe, there’s minimal data on African populations.
A woman holds her stomach in agony from ulcerative colitis.
Emily Frost / Shutterstock.com
Cancer immunotherapy is a revolutionary treatment for many but it can cause nasty side effects like inflammation of the colon that can derail treatment. Could the solution be a fecal transplant?
James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo win the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their foundational work on cancer immunotherapy.
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and Kyoto University
James Allison and Tasuku Honjo won the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for encouraging immune cells to attack cancer. See how their work has revolutionized cancer therapies and medicine.
Applications to list drugs on the PBS are usually submitted by the manufacturers of those drugs.
Some argue the current system of subsidising drugs in Australia needs changing to accommodate new cancer therapies. But two recent drug listings show the current system is working perfectly well.
Some of the notable additions to the PBS include drugs to treat eye and HIV infections, cystic fibrosis, multiple sclerosis, and cancer.
An independent expert provides his pick of the most notable drugs added to the PBS on May 1, 2017.
Complex enough – without cancer.
By tampering with the machinery which allows aggressive cancer cells to adapt, we can disrupt their ecosystem.
New immunotherapy drugs that enhance the body’s natural ability to fight cancer offer several key advantages over previous treatments.
Take one healthy T cell … and modify some things.
If you can’t find the specific T cells you need to fight a cancer, make them.
2014: the year crystallography went mainstream.
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Pancreatic cancer with other cells.
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