Democratic nation-states were supposed to be the legitimate successors of empires. It hasn’t quite worked out that way in the past century, and Russia’s war on Ukraine is a reflection of that.
Economic inequality during the Dutch East Indies era varied radically, depending on where you look. What made the income distribution different from one region to another?
To understand the politics of “Bersiap”, we must refrain from the dichotomous framing of Netherlands/Indonesia as us/them that has plagued years of public debate on the two countries’ colonial past.
Archival records of Dutch timber trade before 1650 are rare or lost. But the wooden timbers of the Batavia contain many secrets.
Indonesia’s physicians were active in the nationalist movement. They were involved in associations and political parties. They also became authors and activists.