Articles on Hiring Discrimination

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Jessie Dean Gipson Simmons, shown top center about age 37, c. 1961. [Clockwise: daughter Angela, sons Obadiah Jerone, Jr. and Carl, and husband Obadiah Jerone, Sr.; daughters Carolyn and Quendelyn are not pictured] Simmons family archives

Jessie Simmons: How a schoolteacher became an unsung hero of the civil rights movement

When Jessie Simmons applied for a teaching job in 1958, her application went to a separate file for "Negro teachers" and got rejected. An education scholar recounts how Simmons fought back and won.

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