South Africa's rural communities where mining licenses have been granted are often excluded from consultations and bear the brunt having their environment and livelihoods destroyed.
Four of the five contemporary migrations in East Africa are severely threatened and have virtually collapsed.
South Africa needs to wean itself off coal in a way that protects jobs and the environment.
A Land Degradation Surveillance framework could solve this problem by systematically measuring and tracking indicators of land health in Africa.
A new international report makes for bleak reading on the state of the world's soils. It predicts that land degradation will displace up to 700 million people worldwide by mid-century.