Ontario's recent threat to use the notwithstanding clause to reduce the size of Toronto's city council is a reminder that municipalities have little protection under the Constitution.
South Africa's dysfuctional municipalities are characterised by very poor, or no delivery, of basic services such as refuse collection.
South Africa's local governments lack a clear separation of legislative and executive powers.
South Africa's governance challenge can't simply be fixed by reorganising the structure of government.
Nearly a third of South Africa's municipalities are not financially viable.
Littering in protest is indicative of a discordant society, and a culture of littering can tell us a lot about a society's ethos.