The Chinese model of peace differs fundamentally from that pursued by western nations.
Russia's President Vladimir Putin has new aspirations in Africa in pursuit of his country's assertiveness in the global arena.
Critics say Trump's defense of Saudi Arabia in the Khashoggi affair betrays American values. But many presidents have cozied up to dictators, ignoring human rights abuses to serve US interests.
The effects of President Mugabe's post-independence security clampdown that led to the murder of between 10 000 and 20 000 Zimbabweans, known as the Matabeleland massacre, continue to be felt.
Young black South Africans have been raised to believe that friendship across the races is an indicator of progress. Now, a generation into democracy, they are questioning this.