Katie Hopkins entering the Celebrity Big Brother house in 2015.
Ian West/PA Archive/PA Images
MPs come in for a lot of abuse online. But who are the haters and is the media partly to blame for the way it reports politics?
Trolling is no longer confined to the darker corners of the internet, especially now the U.S. president himself is engaging in it.
(AP Photo/Alex Brandon)
We're living in an alternate political universe of brazen lies and grotesque online spectacles of incivility. Who - or what - is to blame for trolling going mainstream?
Trolls tend to downplay the impact of their abusive online behaviour on their victims and seem to relish the mayhem they cause. Let’s use this to help them lift their game.
Trolls tend to know the impact they'll have, but don't seem to care. So, how do we use our new findings to help stop this seemingly pointless, harmful behaviour?
We need to call out trolling for what it is: harassment and abuse.
The media is doing the public a disservice by using the word "trolling" to describe more serious behaviours that should be defined as online harassment and abuse.
Facebook still needs humans after all.
Facebook wants to stop violent videos appearing in its feeds, but we must ensure human moderators don't suffer.
Online backers are looking to Trump’s success as a preview of Le Pen’s candidacy.
ID1974 / Shutterstock.com
Some of the same people who played significant roles in a key pro-Trump subreddit are sharing their experience with their French counterparts backing Marine Le Pen.
It’s not all about finding love in the online dating world.
If you're looking for love on a dating app then beware the trolls - and consider upgrading to a paid service to get away from them.
Trolling can spread from person to person.
Cropped from Ayana T. Miller/flickr
You might think that trolling on the internet is done by a small, vocal minority of sociopaths. But what if all trolls aren’t born trolls? What if they are ordinary people like you and me?
Bildagentur Zoonar GmbH/Shutterstock.com
Psychologists believe that something called 'online disinhibition effect' might partly explain trolling behaviour.
Troll image from shutterstock.com
Automated systems that watch online chats and flag racist, sexist and bullying behavior could help curtail internet abuse.
It’s far too easy to type in haste and repent at leisure.
The issues of accessibility, communication and connection are especially relevant when it comes to understanding why so many people vent their spleen on social media.
The Politically Incorrect forum is bringing its racist vitriol to a website near you.
Social media abuse is often personal, sexist and wounding.
Wes Mountain/The Conversation
Social media trolling, which is disproportionately aimed at women, is a sign of a much deeper malaise that must be redressed.
Just try not to get annoyed.
A new study suggests that the pleasure of getting an angry reaction is the biggest predictor of online trolling behaviour – meaning that the best way to fight back is just to ignore them.
We're used to categorising people as "male" or "female" – but that's no excuse for lashing out when athletes defy our expectations.
“Apparently you’ve got some kind of a troll problem?”
Sony Pictures/Columbia Pictures
500m posts are made daily on Twitter alone. Policing them is no easy task.
Brian Halsey, 'Novem II,' 1981, 8 Color Silkscreen Serigraph
Many praise the internet as a democratizing force. But with online spaces replacing physical public squares as places for debate, what do we risk losing?
Kevin Bacon as Ryan Hardy in The Following.
In a media ecology defined through “interactive” behaviour – “web 2.0,” the blogging platforms now favoured by news and cultural criticism sites – a new figure has emerged from the digital abyss: the serial commenter.
Digital harassment is not only an issue affecting children and teenagers.
Women and men are just as likely to report experiencing any form of digital harassment and abuse. However, the nature and impacts of these online harms differ significantly by gender and age.
We have brutal sexual threats, made anonymously, against those who have “transgressed” a particular boundary. Sound familiar?
Brutal sexual threats against perceived trespassers, made anonymously, with the expectation they will be seen as "humorous". Sound familiar? Modern-day trolls belong to a long, and troubling, lineage.