Water at informal settlements, where sanitation and waste management facilities were absent, had high bacteria levels.
Communication between programmers and local communities can provide good opportunities in the toilet prototyping process from the beginning of the design process.
Most of the wastewater produced worldwide receives no treatment and the nutrients in wastewater go to waste. Here's how households can draw these nutrients from urine and use them as fertilisers.
Women in developing countries are burdened by the lack of access to proper toilets in their homes, communities, schools and public spaces.
Existing toilets aren't a good fit for parts of sub-Saharan Africa because many areas lack water and there's often no proper plumbing.
If you want to live like a local when on holiday, you should defecate like one.
For an emerging country like India, it is easier to take part in exploratory missions to Mars than to tackle its sanitation challenge.
While everyone needs access to proper sanitation to stay healthy, for girls and women it is also an issue of safety and equal participation in society.
More than two billion people lack access to decent sanitation. Innovative sanitation technologies can bring toilets into the 21st century with benefits for the developing and developed world.
Archaeological and textual detective work is filling in some information about how ancient Romans used and thought about their sewers thousands of years ago.
Public 'restroom' is a euphemism of the highest order. We don't find it restful.
The bathroom has become a battleground for transgender rights — and rightfully so. Research shows that bathroom restrictions threaten the health and safety of the transgender community.
We know that Africa's cities need better sanitation. But is the global focus on private rather than shared toilets really the best approach?
Sanitation is a massive problem in East Africa. On the supply side there are a host of problems which are preventing people from accessing decent sanitation.