Consolidating peace efforts across the vast territory has proved difficult for close to three decades. Scholars explain why.
Besides good equipment, M23 is fighting a well-organised conventional war in which it has intimidated the national army.
Violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo is used to win a place in government, not to overthrow it. And it keeps working.
Recent clashes put eastern Congo’s M23 into the headlines again, but many other security problems persist in the area as diplomats struggle to tackle the underlying causes.
The Southern African Development Community does not have a remarkable record of military interventions in civil conflicts in the region.