Tokophobia goes beyond normal childbirth concerns and worries and becomes an intense and irrational fear of pregnancy and/or labour.
Our study joins a growing body of evidence that suggests caesarean sections may have more consequences than previously thought.
Professional bodies say that vaginal births after caesareans are safe and usually successful. So why do doctors often recommend that women go back under the knife?
Society holds paradoxical views of childbirth, which can make the debate around it confusing.
Several indigenous child-rearing practices have helped babies develop strong immune systems to ward off allergies. These should be actively promoted.