Paternal and maternal genes drive fetal development in different directions.
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Genetic conflict may play a role in pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes, as well as developmental disorders.
In South Africa, both HIV and pre-eclampsia are a burden to maternal health.
Reducing maternal deaths in developing countries relies on the ability of health systems to swiftly identify and manage women at high risk.
Women who have had pre-eclampsia have twice the risk of heart disease throughout their lifetime than their peers.
Symptoms of pre-eclampsia, including high blood pressure, usually resolve by about two months after the birth. But some health problems can develop later.
Around one in 30 pregnant women have pre-eclampsia.
Pre-eclampsia can be dangerous for expectant mothers, but there are ways to monitor and minimise the risks.
Sex is a form of biological communication, and women use it to make decisions on whether to invest in a pregnancy.
Health benefits come with regular sexual contact with the same male partner before pregnancy commences.
The placenta plays a critical role in pregnancy, fetal development and health throughout life.
An incredibly complex and important organ in its own right, the placenta is only found in mammals. And how it functions has the potential to have profound effects on the lifelong health of the developing foetus.