To keep temperatures from rising above 1.5℃ requires reducing fossil fuel burning by half by 2032.
Under the Paris Agreement, countries have registered plans to meet emissions reductions, but the current pledges, if fully realised, would take us to 2℃ by the 2050s.
Many temperate crops require winter chilling to initiate flowering or fruit ripening, and orchards may need to shift to colder areas.
New Zealand is a net exporter of many fruit and vegetables. While climate-change induced food shortages are not an imminent risk, some crops may be affected by rising temperatures and extreme weather.
Planes can create clouds of tiny ice crystals, called contrails, and some studies suggest they could have an a significant effect on climate.
Globally, emissions from air travel account for only about 3% of the warming human activities are causing, but aviation affects our climate in a number of ways.
As sea levels rise, it becomes easier for ocean waves to spill further onto land.
For every ten centimetres of sea level rise, the chances of a 100-year coastal flood increase three-fold. This means we'll have to build flood defenses or retreat from the coast.
Rapid population growth and increased consumption are now seen as the main drivers of environmental changes.
Discussions about climate change often skirt around the issue of population growth, but it is the main driver of rising carbon dioxide levels and many other environmental changes on a planetary scale.
The atmosphere of Mars is thin and very dry.
NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
The atmosphere of Mars is more than 96% carbon dioxide, but the planet is cold because its atmosphere is extremely thin, very dry and further away from the Sun.
In this special global newsletter, experts share their visions for ambitious climate action.
Rapid and voluminous volcanic eruptions around 252 million years ago can be linked with a mass extinction event.
There is evidence for catastrophic climate change from protracted volcanic eruptions in the past, but since the 1950s the emissions we produce far exceed those from volcanic activity.
The vast emissions caused by these individuals suggest that a very small share of humanity has a very significant role in global warming.
The best way to compare emissions from electric cars is to assess all phases of a life cycle analysis.
In New Zealand, where more than 80% of electricity is renewable, the carbon footprint of electric cars is 62% lower than that of fossil cars. But their lithium battery has other environmental impacts.
Even people who accept the science of climate change sometimes resist it because it clashes with their personal projects.
People are more likely to deny climate change if they're inclined toward hierarchy, have lower levels of education or are more religious. But the strongest predictor of denial is a person's politics.
Eating less meat is one change many of us can make to reduce our contribution to climate change.
Individual actions to reduce emissions are important in two ways. First, they have an immediate impact, and secondly, adopting low-carbon life choices sends a clear message to political leaders.
Restoring Britain's woodlands and peatlands isn't just a utopian dream.
piyaset / shutterstock
Climate change was once considered 'too slow' for great storytelling. Now, long-form novels are struggling to keep up with breakdown.
Had the EU eliminated all subsidies between 2010 and 2017, its emissions would have been 9% lower over the period and governments across the EU would have saved US$441 billion.
A Nepalese woman collects mushroom in a forest.
Himalayan villages are growing food in the forests, a traditional model that can fight both land clearing and world hunger.
Thunberg during her impassioned speech to world leaders at the UN’s 2019 Climate Action Summit.
The human voice is a sonic fingerprint - and Greta Thunberg's tells a powerful story.
The climate strikes have allowed young people to seize the narrative on climate change. Here's how the media should empower them.
Suwin / shutterstock
Automation can be a more efficient use of resources, but it may also mean people consume more.
Is the UN’s climate process fit for purpose?
The history of the UNFCCC shapes what is and isn't possible today.