“Don’t Californicate Oregon [or Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Washington, Montana etc]” was a popular slogan in the western United States during the 1960s and ‘70s. It was a repudiation of the mindless, haphazard development of land that had, by that time, already transformed southern California into “the world’s biggest strip mall”.
A similar groundswell of sentiment now seems to be spreading across the jungles and villages of Papua New Guinea. The developmental demon in this case, however, is not California-style urban sprawl, but Indonesia-style forest exploitation.
At issue is the widescale transfer of title to millions of hectares of densely forested land from customary local ownership to the state through a mechanism known as lease-leaseback. The land is then put into the names of landowner companies, who, in turn, contract developers to construct roads and develop “agro-forestry projects”.
This mechanism has triggered public outrage and expert alarm. A commission of inquiry has been established to investigate charges that most of these leases are merely a front for unregulated logging.
As such, Papua New Guinea appears poised to repeat the experience of Indonesia’s logging boom of the 1970s, 80s and 90s. During this time an estimated 64 million hectares of tropical forest – roughly 40% of the country’s total forest cover – fell to the chainsaws and bulldozers of rapacious crony conglomerates.
Throughout this period, the rights of millions of Indonesians whose livelihoods depended on these forests – and whose ancestors had successfully and profitably managed these forest ecosystems for generations – were sidelined, ignored, suppressed and even criminalised.
Papua New Guinea is widely regarded as a bastion of biodiversity. Over 97% of land in PNG is under customary title. The vast majority of Papuans depend on the forest for their food, livelihoods and shelter.
The legal framework for customary land ownership in PNG was established in the Land Groups Incorporation Act 1974 (LGIA). This was a product of the self-governing but pre-independence era of PNG, later further strengthened in Schedule 2 of the Constitution of Papua New Guinea.
The act does not allow customary land owners to alienate land to non-customary owners. There has been significant pressure, from various bodies including both the Australian government and the World Bank, to reform land ownership systems. They believe customary title is an impediment to development.
This is despite research by ANU scholars, including R. Michael Bourke, showing food and cash crop production by smallholders on customary land has grown steadily over the past 20 years, while the plantation estate sector has been in decline.
In 2007, the PNG government passed two new laws enabling the registration of customary land. Grassroots organisations have been struggling to thwart enactment of this legislation. They fear that communities will sign away their rights for tiny sums of money or enticing gifts.
However, it now appears that this campaign is moot: millions of hectares of crucial forest lands have changed hands through the lease-leaseback provision, which has been in existence since the passage of the 1974 Land Act.
In March 2011, a group of environmental and social scientists, natural resource managers and NGO staff from Papua New Guinea and other nations met at James Cook University to discuss the future management and conservation of Papua New Guinea’s native forests. The group endorsed the Cairns Declaration, calling for a halt to granting of Special Agricultural and Business Leases (SABLs).
A Commission of Inquiry in Port Moresby has initiated an investigation of 72 SABL contracts. They want to determine whether lease developers are loggers trying to bypass forestry laws and whether a majority have – in the words of the inquiry’s brief – acquired their rights “without proper knowledge and involvement of the landowners”.
What impact any of this might have on curbing the lease-leaseback juggernaut remains to be seen.
Meanwhile, at a recent meeting on REDD (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) held in Nagoya, Japan, Greenpeace presented PNG government delegates with the Golden Chainsaw Award. This is a dubious honour usually reserved for illegal and destructive logging companies.
Greenpeace and University of PNG reports estimate that at current levels of logging, by 2021 83% of the nation’s commercially accessible forests will have been cleared or degraded.
It appears that the “Indonesianisation” of Papua New Guinea’s forests is well underway.