Timor-Leste’s recent elections were dubbed “the key test for the fragile democracy” by the Australian media. A peaceful outcome of the election meant that United Nations military and police contingent would leave by the end of 2012.
The results allowed current prime-minister Xanana Gusmão and his CNRT party to form coalition government. As a consequence some violence broke out in Dili. Reports say one person died and dozens of cars were burnt. Nevertheless, peace was quickly restored and the national police have the situation under control.
At the same time, the 17 yachts participating in Darwin-Dili Rally were getting close to the shores of Timor-Leste. This event is just one attempt to boost tourism in the country and improve the image of Timor-Leste as a peaceful destination.
A new industry
Since Timor-Leste gained independence from Indonesian occupation in 1999, tourism has been put forward as one of the major industries that can help the country’s development. Along side petroleum and agriculture, tourism has been considered an economic priority by the government.
Agriculture employs around 64% of population but contributes only 27% to the GDP. Despite this, Timor-Leste remains dependant on food imports including bottled water, rice, chicken, and noodles. La’o Hamutuk, an NGO which monitors and analyses Timor-Leste development, estimates that the Petroleum Fund used to save revenue from Timor Sea oil exploration may become empty as early as in 2018.
Timor-Leste has limited amount of time to convert oil money into other sustainable industries. Given the fact that about 40% of population lives below poverty line, tourist development is paramount as a way to diversify economy, bring employment and rural development.
Currently, tourism in Timor-Leste is at an embryonic stage.
The Ministry of Tourism, Commerce and Industry recemt;y employed Caroline Pemberton (Miss Australia 2007), to develop a series of videos promoting Timor-Leste as a tourism destination. Arguably, these efforts are not enough.
One of the challenges for Timor-Leste is the overwhelmingly negative image of security situation portrayed by overseas media. This frustrates government officials and tour operators alike.
Unfortunately, the Timorese have been providing too many opportunities for media to re-assert this, for example the recent post-election violence. Physical infrastructure remains in a bad shape, constraining construction and ability to travel within the country. The reliance on imports and large presence of highly-paid UN and international organisations staff keep the prices up compared to other destinations.
Developing tourism in a small island nation that has been through 24 years of violent occupation is not an easy task.
What does Timor have to offer?
It is extremely difficult to enter the competitive South-East Asian tourist market, unless a country can offer something different.
Timor-Leste is indeed different and looking for its niche. When it comes to tourism outside the capital, Dili, which relies on diplomats and business travellers, Timor is about diving, trekking, colonial and resistance history and cultural experiences.
Timor-Leste is located in a coral triangle, so it offers a high diversity of marine wildlife. The island represents a huge mountain sticking out of the sea with its highest point at Mt Ramelau, which offers amazing hiking.
There are 16 languages spoken from two different language groups, which demonstrates the cultural diversity of Timor-Leste. There are also remainders of Portuguese colonial times and of the resistance against Indonesian occupation.
Time to step up
There are plenty of attractions for developing eco-, adventure and cultural tourism brands. Financial capital, however, is required to develop these tourism products and bring them up to international standards. Considering the state of infrastructure and stiff competition, conventional mass tourism does not appear to be an option. On the contrary, small-scale, niche developments appear more appropriate if environmental and socio-cultural factors are considered.
One has to consider that the majority of the population has not encountered tourism prior to independence, and never had the opportunity to travel for leisure nor to welcome overseas travellers.
Training and education about tourism, tourist needs, demands and desires are vital. While there are institutions that provide hospitality and tourism education, there is a lack of experienced educators. As a consequence, the standards of accommodation, food and service are at times below tourist expectations, despite the genuine hospitality of Timorese people.
The issues of marketing, infrastructure, training and lack of finance prevent successful development of a tourism industry, especially in rural areas of Timor, which are in great need of economic opportunities.
Additionally, political will, overseas and “home-grown” expertise and accessible hospitality and tourism training are required to establish tourism in Timor-Leste.
Considering the rich natural and cultural assets that Timor-Leste has, hopefully its people can overcome the present hurdles and develop tourism industry for the benefit of Timorese people.