Carl is Deputy Director of the Institute for Fiscal Studies and programme director of their work on direct taxes and welfare. He is an editor of the annual IFS Green Budget. His recent research includes analysis of the impact of the financial crisis and association recession, and the Government's response, on the UK's public finances. He has examined the effect of UK pension reforms on the public finances, retirement behaviour, labour market mobility, incentives to save and inequality, and has evaluated the large scale pilots of the Education Maintenance Allowance, the Pathways-to-Work reforms to incapacity benefits and the Saving Gateway matched savings vehicle. He has previously served as a specialist advisor to the House of Commons Work and Pensions Select Committee.