Dr Jess Gifkins is Lecturer in International Relations at the University of Manchester. Her research focuses on the practice and process of decision-making within the United Nations system. She had published articles on language, drafting (or 'penholding' as it is known), practices, the 'responsibility to protect' (R2P), and on UN responses to crises in Darfur, Libya, and Syria. Her article in the European Journal of International Relations – co-authored with Professor Jason Ralph - was awarded 'Best Article for 2017' by the European International Studies Association. Dr Gifkins did her PhD in the Asia-Pacific Centre for the R2P at the University of Queensland, where she retains an ongoing honorary position. She is Co-Convenor of the British International Studies Working Group on Intervention and R2P, and Associate Editor of Critical Military Studies.