PhD Researcher, Cyber Surveillance and Privacy, University of Westminster

My area of research is concerned with those cyber exploitation operations, which fall below the 'use of force' threshold under Art. 2 (4) Charter of the United Nations conducted by some of the largest intelligence agencies, including those comprising the so-called Five Eyes coalition of English speaking states: the U.S National Security Agency and the U.K. Government Communications Headquarters. In particular, the project's focus is on cyber surveillance activities conducted by these agencies and the impact this has on the right to privacy of communications, within the broader concept of human rights obligations of the states involved, both domestically and abroad. To that end, the thesis not only considers the right to privacy under Article 17 of the 1966 International Covenant of Civil and Political Rights and Article 8 of the 1950 European Convention of Human Rights, but also conceptualizes cyber surveillance within a broader spectrum of cyber operations. This allows for identifying and exploring various gaps in the existing international and domestic frameworks, with the purpose of proposing new solutions relating to how to close the normative lacuna.

My other areas of interest include cyber security, internet governance, human rights, sovereignty, globalization and environmental law. I am a member of the Bar Council, Inner Temple, Chatham House and British Institute of International and Comparative Law.

-LLB, University of Westminster,
-LLM, King's College London
-LLM, University of Westminster,
-Bar Vocational Course, BPP Law School.


  • –present
    PhD Researcher, Cyber Surveillance and Privacy, University of Westminster