Defects and impurities in crystals caused by the incorporation of traces of H2O, CO2 and other gas/fluid components into oxide materials and minerals. Proton conductivity. Organic chemistry in the solid state, low-z element segregation in the solid state and origin of Life. Organics in dust grains in the diffuse interstellar medium. Valence fluctuations in oxygen anion sublattice in oxide materials and silicate minerals activated by temperature, stress, and UV. Semiconductor aspects of mineral and rock physics in relation to earthquake and pre-earthquake phenomena.