James completed a degree in Metallurgy in 1984 using a Cromemco (Unix) minicomputer. Not satisfied with that, he completed a Masters degree (investigating amorphous metals, ion implantation and metallic glass) and got root access in 1986. Later that year James started a PhD on Partially Stabilised Zirconia, while mastering various microcomputers. In 1992 James consulted for manufacturers in Melbourne, and slowly drifted into academia, where he lectured in materials, manufacturing, PLCs until moving into IT in 2001. James now teaches programming and computer security, conducts research into virtualisation and security. He is now using Windows 7, but supplements it with Linux and OSX. ...and he has a beard at the moment.