My research interests lie in 'Environment and human health' with expertise in molecular microbial ecology/environmental microbiology. I am particularly interested in non-tuberculous mycobacteria and their environmental routes for human exposure. Of main interest is Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) which causes inflammatory bowel disease (Johne’s disease) in the majority of animals. With collaborators, we are examining Map’s role in Crohn’s disease, a similar human inflammatory condition. Map is significantly associated with this crippling disease and we seek to ascertain whether it is the cause. Other interests include: antibiotic resistance in the natural and hospital environments, gene transfer in the environment and diversity of bacteria in bird guts and in those involved in bee nutrition.