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Professor of History, Toronto Metropolitan University

I work mainly in the field of Canadian history, dealing with mass protest in Canada, the history of Toronto, and Canadian-American relations, with two additional courses looking at the international world in the 20th Century.. I have published a book in the field of bi-lateral relations; The Golden Dream; A History of the St. Lawrence Seaway. My courses include two on mass protest in Canada, one dealing with violent protests from the 1820s to 1949, covering rebellions and labour strife, and one dealing largely with peaceful mass protests, including a range from the Social Gospel movement, to stages of the women's movement, to protests of the 1960s and 70s, to Indigenous protest, covering the period from the 1880s to the present. In one of these, and in my course, Film Television and 20th Century history, I look at the women's movement and the protests of the 1960s and 70s from a more international vewpoint, comparing Canada to the United States, Britain, and Western Europe. In that course I also deal with the rise of the civil rights movement in the United States. From these courses I have developed a concept of how mass movements originate, and how they can turn violent. In recent years I have been interviewed both nationally and internationally on the subject of mass movements and protests.


  • –present
    Professor, Ryerson University


  • 1976 
    University of Toronto, Ph.D. History