How pirates helped to shape international criminal law.
An African court with international criminal jurisdiction which has been debated but never been put into operation could be an option if Africa withdraws from the ICC.
Former Chadian president Hissène Habré's fate will be sealed by the appeals judgment in a part domestic and international trial bringing closure to victims and human rights champions after a 20 years.
There are fears that the withdrawal of countries from the ICC would mark the end of international criminal justice in Africa. This need not be the case.
The trial of Chad's former dictator could provide a template for prosecutions of other African despots. Its success could be seen as a victory for African justice over international approaches.
Former Chadian President Hissène Habré's disruption of his trial, questioning its authority over him, is a tried and tested defence strategy used by revolutionaries and rulers for eons.
The commitment of African countries and the African Union in bringing the trial of former Chadian strongman Hissène Habré to fruition is unprecedented.