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Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest

At the end of the 1980s, a new reform process started at the Academy. Still before the systemic changes, the General Assembly in 1989 had rehabilitated academicians unlawfully excluded from the Academy in 1949. As another way of making good, in 1992, a body of creative artists had founded the Széchenyi Literary and Artistic Academy as an indepenedent but self-sufficient institution.

An essential change in the Academy’s structure was brought by Law XL. of 1994 which had designated the legal status of the Academy as „a public body working as a legal personality on a principle of self-government", extending the lines of the public body from academicians to everyone holding a scientific degree. The main organ of the scientific public body is the General Assembly which has academicians and 200 elected members of the public body as its members.

The 11 scientific sections of the Academy operate many scientific committees. The cultivation of sciences goes on in research institutes whose operation is directed by the Council of Academic Research. The Academy’s Doctoral Council, in its turn, may profer the title „Doctor of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences" to the best scholars. The material conditions of operation are secured mainly by the central budget, and also by grants and foundations.