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Lecturer in History, Nottingham Trent University

I am a specialist in the following areas:
1. Medieval Warfare
2. The Crusades
3. Monasticism
4. Medieval Christianity
5. The Knights Templar/Hospitaller
6. The history of the Medieval Mediterranean
7. The medieval relationship between Christianity and Islam


  • –present
    Lecturer in History , Nottingham Trent University


  • 2008 
    Royal Holloway, PhD


  • 2016
    Encountering Islam on the First Crusade, Cambridge University Press
  • 2015
    Why did the Crusades ultimately fail to retain Christian control of the Holy Land?, The Crusades to the Holy Land: The essential reference guide, ed. A. Murray
  • 2015
    Templar and Hospitaller attitudes towards Islam in the Holy Land during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries: some historiographical reflections, Levant
  • 2015
    The Saljuq Turks’ conversion to Islam: the crusading sources, Al-Masāq: Islam and the Medieval Mediterranean
  • 2014
    Encountering the Turks: the First Crusaders’ foreknowledge of their enemy: Some preliminary findings, Crusading and warfare in the Middle Ages: realities and representations, essays in honour of John France, ed. S. John and N. Morton
  • 2014
    ‘Arab Muslim reactions to the advent of the First Crusade (co-authored with Professor John France), Warfare, crusade and conquest in the Middle Ages
  • 2014
    Perceptions of Islam in William of Tyre’s Historia, Deeds done beyond the sea: essays on William of Tyre, Cyprus and the military orders presented to Peter Edbury, ed. S. Edgington
  • 2013
    The Medieval Military Orders, Routledge
  • 2011
    In Subsidium: The declining contribution of Germany and Eastern Europe to the crusades to the Holy Land, 1187-1291, German Historical Institute bulletin
  • 2010
    The defence of the Holy Land and the memory of the Maccabees, Journal of Medieval History
  • 2009
    The Teutonic Knights in the Holy Land, 1190-1291, Boydell