For decades, presidents routinely replaced large swaths of the government workforce, often requiring them to pay fees to political parties in exchange for their jobs.
President Wilson sanctioned segregation policies more than a century ago by targeting Black civil service workers.
The Trump administration may do well to make a friend of the federal bureaucracy it's so intent on gutting, according to an expert who studies the role of civil servants in government.
The president manages more than 200 organizations that make up the federal government. A survey of 3,500 federal managers shows they struggle with recruiting and retaining skilled workers.
Twenty-four percent of federal agency executives want to leave their jobs. A new survey reveals a federal workforce under severe stress.