A tale of vampirism would have been shocking to readers at the time if was published, not because of its monsters, but its politics.
Some horror films explore women’s struggles for empowerment, sexual freedom and self-fulfilment. Six movies show the ghost, bride, mother, vampiress, witch and monster as guises of vengeful women.
Scientists are left with two conclusions. Either Nessie is an eel, or she never existed at all.
By showing us a world from which mothers are largely absent, Mary Shelley reminds us that the genius of motherhood lies less in biological reproduction than in the capacity to love.