Grid electricity is often said to be critical for long-term human development. But are the substantially higher investment costs justified by the economic impact?
There has been no progress in expanding national electricity grids in most African countries since 2016.
Small-scale renewable energy projects can power rural areas not connected to the main grid. But investors may hesitate if future electrification remains unpredictable.
A lighting revolution is underway across Africa that's occurred largely without government or donor involvement.
New technologies are developing with exponential velocity, breadth and depth. Their systemic impact is likely to be profound.
Despite having some of the best solar radiation levels in the world, the diffusion of solar energy systems in Africa has been very low