I obtained a BEng degree in Electrical Machines and Power Systems from the University of Zambia in 1981. I then went on to study for a postgraduate diploma in Electric Power Distribution Systems at the Norwegian Institute of Technology between 1983 and 1984. My MSc in Electric Power Transmission and Distribution and PhD in Power System Economics were obtained from UMIST, which is now part of the University of Manchester, in 1987 and 2000 respectively. Prior to joining the University of Manchester in 2002, I spent over 15 years in the electric utility industry. My industrial experience includes a wide range of technical posts at Copperbelt Power Company, now Copperbelt Energy Corporation and ZESCO, the Zambian National Utility. The posts at the national utility included Transmission Manager and Director of Engineering Development.