After South Africa's first democratic election in 1994, the previously oppressed and dispossessed black majority hoped for constitutional restitution of their land. This has largely failed.
The economic transformation discussion document released by South Africa's governing party, the ANC, fails to be radical.
South African finance minister Pravin Gordhan's medium-term budget speech was a lot about balancing the politics of a divided ruling ANC.
South Africa must examine how science funding is allocated to universities. It also needs to acknowledge that not all universities should be focusing on research and development.
Land issues are increasingly at the centre of politics in South Africa, but the debate needs fresh ideas.
Through developing their technological skills, South Africa's local municipalities can increase their capacity to compete with markets in neighbouring countries.
For more than 100 years South Africa's ruling ANC and its leaders have often been able to speak to and for the nation with resonance and moral authority, their words matching actions. Not any more.
Justice Malala argues that South Africa faces a governance and leadership crisis, rather than an economic crisis. He argues that is not up to the ruling party alone to solve the problem.
Vocational training is regarded as "low status" in South Africa. Much of the negativity around technical and vocational work seems to lie in the country's history.
The future is not bleak as long as the government recognises the importance of and continues investing in science.
South Africa's lack of a clear policy direction, poor leadership, corruption and electricity supply problems will be the major constraints to its economic growth over the next 20 years.