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Alexander Douglas

Lecturer in Philosophy, University of St Andrews

I specialise in early modern philosophy, especially Spinoza, and the philosophy of economics.

I have published three books: Spinoza and Dutch Cartesianism: Philosophy and Theology (Oxford University Press, 2015), The Philosophy of Debt (Routledge, 2015), and The Philosophy of Hope: Beatitude in Spinoza (Routledge, 2023).


  • –present
    Lecturer in History of Philosophy / Philosophy of Economics, Heythrop College, University of London


  • 2011 
    Birkbeck College, University of London, Doctor of Philosophy / Philosophy