I am a marine ecologist studying the drivers and patterns of long-term change in coastal ecosystems. My research has largely focused on drivers and patterns of long-term change in coastal ecosystems. My expertise centers on climate-driven changes to kelp forests, including shifts to alternate ecosystems such as turf reefs and sea urchin barrens, and expansion along arctic coasts. I am also interested in the production and export of kelp detritus, and the role this blue carbon plays in the broader carbon cycle. My recent work has focused on restoration approaches in kelp forests through the new Green Gravel tool. My research also tackles interdisciplinary questions such as links between social and ecological systems during regime shifts, and ethical questions associated with emerging use of genetic restoration techniques.