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Lennart Spindler

PhD Candidate of Neuroscience, University of Cambridge

After previous work in neurotransmitter and neuromodulator systems from micro-, meso- and macroscopic angles, Lennart is currently working with multimodal neuroimaging approaches to develop a framework to understand how neurotransmitter and neuromodulator nuclei from the brainstem change their relationship with one another, and the rest of the brain – in altered states of consciousness (such as anaesthesia, disorders of consciousness etc) and various pathologies. By combining fMRI, MRS, DTI and other imaging techniques, he is characterising what prognostic, diagnostic and treatment-informing value these brainstem areas, their connectivity, and structural integrity may hold for disorders that entail arousal or awareness disruptions. He is interested to enter clinical practice after finishing his PhD.


  • –present
    PhD Candidate of Neuroscience, University of Cambridge