Muhammad's PhD in Political Science and International Relations from the University of Western Australia (UWA) investigated the sub-national, national, regional and global agents, structures and interests at play in both the emergence of and responses to Islamist movements in Western Africa in the post-9/11 context. At UWA, he teaches units on Africa's international politics, peace and international security. He is a Research Fellow at the UWA’s Africa Research & Engagement Centre and a Research Associate of the West Africa Centre for Counter-Extremism (Ghana). He is also a political analyst for some think tanks and has received a few merit awards including the Australian Commonwealth Parliamentary Library Summer Scholarship (2016) and The Khalifa Al-Falasi Prize in Muslim Studies (2017). Muhammad is currently working on his first book on Islamism and armed groups in (West) Africa.