The problem with Africa's model of industrial growth is that it privileges the formal at the expense of the informal and big corporations at the expense of small businesses.
The 'Africa Rising' narrative was disturbed in 2016 by a combination of factors. But the continent is still on firm economic development footing.
Africa has been called a "consumer continent" by many, but in reality much of what its people consume is produced elsewhere. Technology is key to Africa becoming a self-reliant producer of goods.
Grassroots protesters are questioning the logic of export-led ‘growth’ and renewed fiscal austerity pushed through the ‘Africa rising’ narrative. They want policies that meet their basic needs.