A weak Malian state prompted local ethnic communities to organise armed self-defence groups.
The absence of a strong government in Mali
allows jihadists to enter new areas and flourish.
South Tower being hit during the 9/11 attacks. The events of September 11 2001 has significantly shaped American attitudes and actions towards fighting terrorism, surveilling citizens and othering outsiders.
Though more consequences are likely to develop in the post-9/11 era, the war on terror, heightened government surveillance and Islamophobia are notable legacies of this early 21st century tragedy.
Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta.
In many ways US-Kenya relations is in uncharted territory.
Men walk on the wreckage of a building destroyed by air strikes in Sanaa, Yemen, on June 6, 2018.
Yemen's civil war is a stew of local and foreign interests, from Washington, Saudi Arabia to Iran. And the latest battle may cost the lives of hundreds of thousands of civilians, if not millions.
Afghan Northern Alliance fighters in 2001. Almost two decades later, the war continues.
AP Photo/David Guttenfelder
A strategy to shut down Taliban safe havens in Pakistan could bring the war to an end.
The term "social network" has become commonplace, but those who use it to designate Facebook or Instagram often ignore its origin and true meaning.
Wes Mountain/The Conversation
Raffaello Pantucci explains what lone-actor terrorism is, why it's effective and why we seem to be seeing more attacks that aren't clearly connected to terror networks in this long-form comic explainer.
French President Emmanuel Macron during his visit to French counter-terrorism forces in northern Mali, in May.
EPA/Christophe Petit Tesson
Some African countries present a facade of democracy. The absence of substantive democracy is contributing to instability on the continent.
Manhattan on Sept. 11, 2001.
AP Photo/Daniel Hulshizer
An unprecedented onslaught from the US hasn't destroyed the terrorist organization. What is the secret of its resilience?
In this photo from Sept. 11, 2001, firefighters work in the ruins of the World Trade Center towers in New York City after an al-Qaida terrorist attack.
(AP Photo/Mark Lennihan)
It's been 16 years since the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001. Understanding what propelled al-Qaida's attacks could help guard against further violence.
Children used as pawns in conflict.
Child victims are used to justify the cause, while young soldiers further it.
A case study from the height of the Crusades in the 12th and 13th centuries illustrates that even the most brutal leaders can choose to compromise for stability.
Obsessional coverage of attacks plays into the hands of terrorism. Responsible reporting is what is now called for.
In the aftermath of Westminster, how much reporting was constructive and how much was simply publicity for terrorists?
Aftermath of the 2016 Berlin attack.
Al-Qaeda and Islamic State have both encouraged would-be terrorists to use cars and trucks as weapons.
An Afghan militia vehicle on the outskirts of Kunduz, in October 2016.
Bahsir Khan Safi/AFP
Under the Obama administration, the US army began to recruit, arm, and finance local militias to fight the Taliban. With Trump in the White House, what remains of this strategy?
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi was killed by the Americans on June 7, 2006. Shortly after his death, his successors fulfilled his wishes by announcing the existence of the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI)
In an extract from his new book, The Mind of the Islamic State, Robert Manne unpacks the split between IS and Al Qaeda.
A burnt ancient manuscript at the Ahmed Baba Centre for Documentation and Research, in Timbuktu.
The ICC sentence against Al-Mahdi for destroying ancient artifacts at Timbuktu sends the right message that the international community will not tolerate the destruction of heritage sites.
Somalia security escort Uganda’s President Yoweri Museveni’s convoy to a regional summit in Mogadishu, the first in 35 years.
Al Shabaab is facing stress under increased pressure from the government and the regional states. But it should also be noted that predictions of its collapse have come and gone before
EPA/Zouhir al Shimale
A volunteer force that provides humanitarian aid in the worst of conditions, the White Helmets are the target of some very caustic conspiracy theory.
The US seems stuck in War-on-Terror mode even though reality has moved on.