Stemming high HIV rates among adolescent girls and young women in sub-Saharan Africa has become a challenge due to the cycle of transmission.
Trials have shown that rates of HIV infection are reduced if people not infected with HIV take anti-retrovirals - known as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). But adherence to a daily dose is a problem.
The focus of the 2016 International AIDS Conference has on access to necessary antiretrovirals, equity and making sure no-one is left behind. But there is a funding gap that needs to be addressed.
Taking antiretrovirals is key to reducing HIV infection rates, but the challenge lies in making sure people who know they are infected actually take the drugs.
Three new studies conducted in South Africa provide insights into the engine that drives HIV transmission in the country.
If the vaginal ring becomes available for commercial use it will become one of the tools in the HIV prevention toolbox for women alongside female condoms and daily pre-exposure prophylaxis.
Despite the breakthroughs in HIV and AIDS research, without an effective vaccine, the world will not get to zero new infections and deaths.
Globally, the health community is moving to a point where there could be zero new HIV infections or deaths. But it has been a long road.
Young women in southern Africa are most at risk of becoming infected with HIV. If they take a pre-exposure prophylaxis like Truvada it could change their lives.