The middle class concept in Africa has remained vague and limited to number crunching. The minimum threshold for entering it in monetary terms was critically vulnerable to a setback into poverty.
Site of a proposed palm oil plantation in Kalimantan, Indonesia.
Dr Ward Berenschot
This is what neo-colonialism looks like in the 21st century.
Anti-WTO protesters in Seattle, 1999.
Seattle Municipal Archives via Wikimedia Commons
As the world pulls up its drawbridges, it's time to revive the ideas of a remarkable and unfairly derided movement.
Remarkable things happen when academics from the global South work together.
It's important to create spaces where the global South's problems can be presented, debated and solutions developed - including some that can be applied in similar economies.
Ancient fermentation techniques are an example of African chemistry in action.
Knowledge is power. If you own it, you can control those without it. Since so much knowledge about Africa doesn't sit on the continent, it's apparent that Africa lacks power in this regard.
People at a temple in Ahmedabad, India. The country’s government struggles to come to terms with racism against African immigrants.
Racial violence has its parallels in other forms of violence in India. The prejudice runs across multiple channels from caste, region, religion to gender.
The global South has more in common than just proximity – our cultural heritage links our literature.
Seasons, stars, settler colonialism: the nations of the south – Australia, Argentina and South Africa – have much in common. And the 2003 Nobel laureate for literature, JM Coetzee, is helping reframe Australian writing within this southern context.
Of course Africa’s universities need collaboration – but not if it’s merely an imposition of ideas from elsewhere.
Africa's universities must avoid collaborative programmes with the North that become mere tick-box exercises that only benefit Northern researchers and organisations.
How is Berlin’s landmark art show presenting our new preoccupations?
Courtesy 9th Berlin Biennale for Contemporary Art
Art events should encourage us to spark new thinking outside of our cloistered world, but Berlin risks being lost in technological navel gazing.
Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, is one of the fastest-growing cities in the world despite its ranking as one of the ‘least liveable’.
Bringing significant benefits to an emergent middle class, Dhaka's cultural, economic, environmental and political landscapes are being rapidly but unevenly transformed.
A street trader looks out from his store in Cape Town, South Africa. Defining people who earn US$2 a day as middle class doesn’t make sense.
Some economists have touted the rising middle class as a panacea for Africa's challenges. But a more realistic diagnosis of what makes up a middle class is needed.
Mothers and their babies at a clinic in Johannesburg. South Africa leads the Global South with its expansive social protection programme.
The gendered nature of social welfare is invisible and taken for granted – particularly in development contexts.It's time to debate a more gender-sensitive and equitable welfare agenda in the South.
Former Brazilian president Lula da Silva’s development aid programme has fizzled out.
Lula led an unprecedented shift in the country’s foreign policy towards the global South. He also helped elevate Brazil to the status of a global player. But, six years on, disillusionment reigns.
Viewed through human activities, the Internet is becoming ever more heterogeneous as more non-Western populations get online.
Mapping Web usage shows a new picture of the Internet, one without its core in the West, but rather a mosaic of online regional cultures that mirror offline regional cultural identities.
South Africa was hit by an unprecedented wave of student protests against fee hikes, racism and for the decolonisation of curriculum.
Many works published on decolonisation originate from Ngugi wa Thiongo's idea of decolonising the African mind. Imperialism, he writes, has left its mark on the minds of the previously colonised.
Retailers offer ‘rewards’ programs and loyalty cards that can trap customers into a debt cycle.
In the global South, where some argue that "everyone is now middle class", people are reluctant to acknowledge that they need to borrow money – and the stigma drives them to dodge their debts.