The Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), established in 1992 by the Czech National Council as the Czech successor of the former Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, is the leading non-university basic public institution in the Czech Republic. It conducts both fundamental and strategic applied research to create scientific knowledge that contributes to strengthening the nation’s position in key areas of science and to seeking up-to-date solutions to contemporary problems of society. Within three scientific divisions, - mathematics, physics, and earth sciences, - chemical and life sciences, - humanities and social sciences, the Academy manages a network of 60 research institutes and five supporting units staffed by a total of 6400 employees, one half of whom are university-trained researchers and PhD. scientists. ASCR institutes also offer courses at graduate level and supervises doctoral programmes. The Academy advises the state on major issues related to its R&D policy, administers national and international research programmes, and promotes cooperation with industry to foster technology transfer and the exploitation of scientific knowledge.