Secondary batteries, such as lithium-ion batteries, are critical modern energy storage devices because they can quickly and efficiently store electrical energy using a simple electrochemical cell. Despite thirty years of research, there remain gaps in the battery performance of lithium-ion batteries that limit their capabilities and fail to meet the criteria necessary for future technologies, including low energy density, low power density, and short cycle life. Nanostructured, three dimensional battery materials such as 3D electrodes are promising because they can increase energy and power density per electrode area as well as increase the cycle life of the battery. Research goals in the Prieto group include developing nanostructured 3D anodes, such as nanofoams and nanowires, for secondary batteries and investigating new materials to improve overall battery performance. The research is focused on developing low temperature and environmentally friendly processing methods and using primarily earth-abundant materials to maximize performance and minimize cost and environmental impact of next generation batteries.