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Lecturer in Psychology, The Open University

I am a decision scientist and I am currently investigating how jurors make decisions. Although my research is very much theory driven, it has applications to the criminal justice system. I study how pre-trial biases, cognitive fallacies, and changes in the legal environment have an impact on both juror outcomes and juror decision processes. My research has utilised theories and models from psychology and mathematics in an attempt to find a model that can reliably describe the decision making processes of jurors.

My current research project looks to compare the decision making processes of jurors in a three-verdict system (where jurors can give a Guilty, a Not Guilty or a Not Proven verdict) with jurors in a two-verdict system (where only Guilty and Not Guilty verdicts are available). The not proven verdict has seen quite a lot of controversy of late, with several politicians trying to remove this ‘Not Proven’ option.


  • 2019–present
    Lecturer, The Open University
  • 2017–2019
    Teaching Associate , Edinburgh Napier University


  • 2018 
    Edinburgh Napier University , PhD
  • 2014 
    Edinburgh Napier University, BSc Honours Degree in Psychology (2:1)


  • 2020
    An inconvenient truth: More rigorous and ecologically valid research is needed to properly understand cognitive bias in forensic decisions, Forensic Science International: Synergy
  • 2020
    Authors’ Response: Is the definition of task-irrelevant contextual information black and white? , The journal of Forensic Science
  • 2020
    Assessing cognitive bias in forensic decisions: A review and outlook, The journal of Forensic Science
  • 2019
    Threshold point utilisation in juror decision-making, Psychiatry, Psychology and law
  • 2019
    The bastard verdict and its influence on jurors, Medicine, Science and the Law
  • 2018
    Faith in thy threshold, Medicine, Science and the Law
  • 2018
    Decision Science: A new hope, Psychological Reports
  • 2017
    Are consistent juror decisions related to fast and frugal decision making? Investigating the relationship between juror consistency, decision speed and cue utilisation. , Medicine, Science and the Law
  • 2017
    The Relationship between the Big 5 Personality Traits and Eyewitness Recognition, Journal of Articles in Support of the Null Hypothesis
  • 2017
    Decision Making Process of Jurors In Factbook: Psychology and Law, European Association of Psychology and Law Student Society
  • 2016
    Heuristics:The good, the bad, and the biased - what value can bias have for decision-makers?, PSYPAG
  • 2016
    Jury still out on merits of the Not Proven verdict, The Scotsman

Professional Memberships

  • Scottish Institute of Policing Research
  • Postgraduate Forensic Psychology and Criminology Research Network
  • Centre for Policing Research and Learning
  • Harm and Evidence Research Collaborative
  • The European Association of Psychology and Law