I have collaborated on multiple epidemiological studies measuring risk of HIV and risk behaviours among people who inject drugs and sex workers including in Russia, Serbia, Estonia and Pakistan. I have led a mixed-method study examining the nature and determinants of sexually transmitted infections among migrant sex workers from Eastern Europe working in London. Most recently I was lead author on a policy report for the World Bank synthesising published evidence on HIV prevalence and structural determinants of HIV risk among vulnerable populations in Europe. I am currently leading a research project that examines the impact of policing enforcement practices on sex workers risk of violence, sexual and emotional health and access to services. My main research interests include: epidemiology of drug use, HIV and sexually transmitted infections; combining qualitative and quantitative methods to measure mechanisms through which policies interact with individual risk behaviour and vulnerability to HIV; and public health surveillance and monitoring of infections and risk behaviours among people who inject drugs and sex workers.