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Michael J. Armstrong

Associate Professor, Operations Research, Brock University

Much of my research has used mathematical models to analyze military combat. This allows me to investigate topics in international security and military history. I have studied rocket defenses on land (e.g., Israel's Iron Dome) and missile warfare at sea (e.g., anti-ship cruise missiles). I have also collaborated with historians to reexamine key battles from the past (e.g., Balaclava, Gettysburg, and Coral Sea).

More recently I have been studying Canada's cannabis legalization. I am particularly interested in how business practices interact with government regulations to either support or undermine policy objectives.

Most of my research papers are free to download from Brock University's Digital Repository:

I teach courses in quality improvement, game theory, and operations management. My professional certifications are from the American Society for Quality.

I enjoy helping the news media explain key issues to the public. I have done more than 400 print and radio interviews, written more than 90 opinion and analysis columns, and occasionally comment via Twitter.


  • 2008–present
    Associate professor, Brock University
  • 2004–2008
    Associate professor, Carleton University
  • 2001–2004
    Assistant professor, Carleton University
  • 1998–2001
    Assistant professor, Royal Military College of Canada


  • 1996 
    University of British Columbia, PhD in Business (Management Science)


  • 2021
    Legal cannabis market shares during Canada’s first year of recreational legalization, International Journal of Drug Policy 88, Feb, 103028
  • 2020
    How gaps between target and midcourse grades impact undergraduates’ studying intentions and grade improvements, Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education 18 #4, 549-567
  • 2018
    The effectiveness of rocket attacks and defenses in Israel, Journal of Global Security Studies 3 #2 113-132
  • 2017
    Influence of target and actual grades on studying intentions, The International Journal of Management Education 15 #1 49-59
  • 2015
    Refighting Pickett’s Charge: mathematical modeling of the Civil War battlefield, Social Science Quarterly 96 #4 1153–1168
  • 2015
    A counterfactual study of the Charge of the Light Brigade, Historical Methods 48 #2 80-89
  • 2015
    Is the second time the charm for students repeating introductory finance?, Journal of Financial Education 41 #1 32-49
  • 2014
    The performance of new and repeating students in introductory economics, Journal of the Academy of Business Education 15 Spring 84-96
  • 2014
    Modeling short-range ballistic missile defense and Israel’s Iron Dome system, Operations Research 62 #5 1028-1039
  • 2014
    The salvo combat model with a sequential exchange of fire, Journal of the Operational Research Society 65 #10 1593-1601
  • 2013
    The salvo combat model with area fire, Naval Research Logistics 60 #8 652-660
  • 2013
    To repeat or not to repeat a course, Journal of Education for Business 88 #6 339-344
  • 2013
    A preliminary study of grade forecasting for students, Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education 11 #2 193-210
  • 2011
    Inventory flow in Canadian candy bar supply chains, Production and Inventory Management Journal 47 #2, 69-78
  • 2011
    A verification study of the stochastic salvo combat model, Annals of Operations Research 186 #1, 23-38

Professional Memberships

  • American Society for Quality
  • Institute for Operations Research & Management Science
  • Canadian Operational Research Society
  • Society for Military History

Research Areas

  • Stochastic Analysis And Modelling (010406)
  • Simulation And Modelling (080110)
  • Higher Education (130103)
  • Quality Management (150313)
  • Defence Studies (160604)
  • Operations Research (010206)
  • Health Economics (140208)
  • Economic Development Policy (160505)


Fulbright Visiting Research Chair (2013-2014), Chancellor's Chair for Teaching Excellence (2012-2015)