Dr. Shapiro is an Associate Professor in Medicine at Harvard Medical School and the Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health. His primary research interests are in the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) and the reduction of morbidity and mortality among infants born to HIV-infected women. Since 1999, Dr. Shapiro has studied infant outcomes and PMTCT strategies in several large NIH-funded clinical trials in Botswana. He was a co-investigator of the Mashi Study, which evaluated several PMTCT interventions among 1200 mother-infant pairs; the principal investigator of the Mma Bana Study, which compared 3 different antiretroviral combinations during pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding among 730 mothers-infant pairs; co-principal investigator of the Mpepu Study, which evaluated strategies for reduce infant mortality among over 3,000 HIV-exposed uninfected infants; and principal investigator for several studies of adverse birth outcomes. He is currently the principal investigator for NIH-funded studies that perform nationwide surveillance studies to evaluate the mechanisms by which antiretrovirals impact adverse birth outcomes; an ongoing clinical trial of early antiretroviral treatment to improve clinical outcomes in HIV-infected infants (the Early Infant Treatment Study); and novel use of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies as alternate treatment for early-treated, low-reservoir children. Dr. Shapiro works closely with the Botswana PMTCT Program, and is a member of the PMTCT Advisory Panel for the World Health Organization.