Because the interactions between trees, soils, crops and livestock can be positive or negative, their relationship must be balanced and understood.
Genomics research is crucial to identify Africa-specific solutions to a range of diseases.
Science development in Africa is intimately linked to the quality of people who are able to lead change.
Senegal has made great strides in astronomy and planetary sciences in recent years.
With the right investment, the next few years could be extremely exciting for Nigerian neuroscience.
The Global State of Young Scientists Africa project investigates the challenges that shape the career trajectories of young African scientists.
There are several projects and initiatives that offer hope amid all the bad news about African science.
Research institutes and "centres of excellence" exist around the world to draw talent and to share resources - all with the aim of solving important problems.
Calestous Juma believed that Africa needed an integrated science, technology and innovation framework. The continent can make this happen.
A precursor to the Square Kilometre Array- the MeerKAT telescope - is being built right now and remarkable progress has been made in the last 12 months.
Africa's overall contribution to research might be small, but smart people are undertaking smart and important work on and about the continent.
It's important that South African teachers, lecturers and professors develop curricula that build on the best knowledge skills, values, beliefs and habits from around the world.
For science to have an impact there must be a genuine will to implement its advances. This requires promoting a greater understanding of science in broader society.
There is broad acknowledgement that the way science is taught and practised in Africa is not socially inclusive.
Collaboration is one of the keys to making African science soar: when the continent's universities work together, they can produce amazing results.
Many people are left floundering when they try to get working on their PhDs. In Africa, this is often because the skills they need haven't been developed earlier in their academic careers.
Science and business don't often go together, but that's changing as more scientists realise that their best ideas can be commercialised.
There are a number of stumbling blocks to intra African collaboration. These must be addressed to ensure that research is not duplicated and that findings are shared.
There are plenty of innovators, scientists and inventors in Africa doing remarkable work today. So why does the myth of Africa being devoid of scientific innovators persist?
Successful economies are led by innovation and driven by knowledge. For Africa to advance, it needs to make more substantial investments in its research and development sector.