# Articles on Mathematical models

## Why we need to rethink what we know about dust

New research reveals our understanding of dust’s role in the environment is far from settled.

## How do astronomers know the age of the planets and stars?

Measuring the ages of planets and stars is tricky. An observational astrophysicist describes the subtle clues that provide good estimates for how old different space objects are.

## One easy way to fight antibiotic resistance? Good hand hygiene

Using a mathematical model, researchers found that good hygiene can reduce the harmful effects of antibiotic use.

## How queuing leads to city centre violence and what our research says about preventing night-time brawls

Recent research shows how the relationship between alcohol consumption, queuing and crowds can lead to violent behaviour in city centres at night.

## How a quest for mathematical truth and complex models can lead to useless scientific predictions – new research

The assumption that more detail is better is questioned by a new study.

## 433 people win a lottery jackpot – impossible? Probability and psychology suggest it’s more likely than you’d think

A lottery jackpot being won by 433 people in the Phillipines has raised accusations of foul play. Then again – such outcomes usually do.

## Coronavirus vaccines: how will we know when life can go back to normal?

Here’s what we still need to find out before we can know when we’ll be able to return to our pre-coronavirus ways.

## Which age group — old or young — should get the COVID-19 vaccine first may depend on timing

If supplies of COVID-19 vaccine are initially limited, who should be vaccinated first? A mathematical model shows when and why it’s best to start with the young, and when older people should go first.

## Large class sizes during the coronavirus pandemic are a triple whammy

Schools reopening during the current coronavirus pandemic need to calculate class sizes to prevent the spread of disease and minimize disruptions.

## Reopening elementary schools carries less COVID-19 risk than high schools – but that doesn’t guarantee safety

New research points to why reopening elementary schools is the safest bet and what else needs to happen for schools to have the best chance of staying open.

## How effective does a COVID-19 coronavirus vaccine need to be to stop the pandemic? A new study has answers

A vaccine that’s 70% effective might not be good enough if too few people are willing to be vaccinated, new research shows.

## Choices in a fog of uncertainty: lessons for coronavirus from climate change

The science to policy process that was developed to guide climate mitigation decisions can be applied to the response to the COVID-19 pandemic, without having to be reinvented.

## Why there isn’t a one-size-fits-all plan for states to reopen their economies

How and when the US economy reopens will look different state to state, and for good reasons. This Q&A explains why, and why some states are working together.

## Coronavirus: the UK could be over the peak

Cause for a degree of relief.

## How much coronavirus testing is enough? States could learn from retailers as they ramp up

Testing everyone for COVID-19 isn’t realistic in a country the size of the US, but there are ways to design testing systems that can catch most of the cases.

## Coronavirus: will the UK really have highest death toll in Europe, as a US study suggests?

Only time will tell.

## Coronavirus: we’ve had ‘Imperial’, ‘Oxford’ and many more models – but none can have all the answers

Each model is another part of the jigsaw.