The largest number of HIV-exposed but uninfected children are in South Africa.
HIV negative children born to women with HIV have a greater risk of dying before their first birthday.
A community health worker conducting a HIV test in a mobile clinic in a remote part of KwaZulu-Natal.
Greg Lomas / Médecins Sans Frontières
Women and children remain the focus of HIV while men are disadvantaged in accessing testing and treatment in Africa.
More than 15 000 researchers, activists and policymakers descend on Amsterdam this week for the 22nd International Aids Conference.
The HIV epidemic is far from over and it's not time to disengage, says International Aids Society President Linda-Gail Bekker.
Health workers promote exclusive breastfeeding to HIV positive mothers more than they do to mothers who are negative.
South Africa's data rollout of its pre-exposure prophylaxis shows that there is a relatively slow, but increasing, uptake. However, more needs to be done to target young women.
Pillbox (illustration only).
A clinical trial currently underway in France could confirm that that HIV treatment can be safely reduced to just four days a week, while maintaining the same efficacy.
In rural areas where there are often fewer healthcare professionals available, traditional healers can have a role to play in promoting HIV treatment.
Stigma stops people from getting tested for HIV, and staying on their treatment. Unless it's addressed, the AIDS epidemic will persist.
Antiretroviral drugs suppress the HIV virus and stop progression of the disease.
The introduction of Pre Exposure Prophylaxis drugs in Kenya aims at reducing new HIV infections among people facing substantial ongoing risk.
In the Democratic Republic of Congo, HIV is still highly stigmatised.
HIV remains a synonym for death in Kinshasa and many leave testing and treatment until it's too late. It's not common knowledge that an infected person can live a normal and healthy life.
Activists supporting the decriminalisation of sex work at the 21st International AIDS Conference in Durban, South Africa.
International AIDS Society/Abhi Indrarajan
South Africa has launched a plan to tackle HIV, TB and sexually transmitted infections -- but much depends on its implementation over the next five years.
People with a certain gene have an adverse reaction to the antiretroviral efavirenz.
Up to 50% of the people who take the efavirenz antiretroviral react particularly badly to it and need to change drug regimens.
A photomicrograph of the Cryptococcus fungus.
More than 250 000 patients at highest risk for cryptococcal meningitis but no symptoms will be screened in South Africa annually to reduce the number of deaths.
Medical circumcision in settings where there are high rates of HIV will only be successful if these interventions take into account local beliefs about circumcision.
Testing and treatment is important in tackling HIV. But stigma and access need to be addressed too.
Taking antiretrovirals is key to reducing HIV infection rates, but the challenge lies in making sure people who know they are infected actually take the drugs.
South African HIV rights group, the Treatment Action Campaign, marching through Durban, calling for antiretroviral access for all.
International AIDS Society/Rogan Ward
Current epidemiological and financial trends suggest there's a major risk of a substantial shortfall in the funds required to sustain life-saving antiretroviral programmes.
Simplicity of delivery will be critical if a ‘cure’ is going to be deliverable in the parts of the world where HIV is endemic.
Curing HIV – or at least achieving long-term remission – is possible, under the right circumstances.
The more scientists understand about what drives HIV transmission, the more they can start to fight the virus.
Rupak De Chowdhuri/Reuters
Three new studies conducted in South Africa provide insights into the engine that drives HIV transmission in the country.
Activists, health-care workers and scientists in South Africa were faced with a horrific epidemic but went on a ruthless crusade to turn it around.
ART for all?
New guidelines from the World Health Organization mean more people are eligible for antiretrorviral therapy. It's critical to find ways for people to start treatment without multiple clinic visits.