Evolution has shaped gender differences, but we don't have to be bound to this history. We are not mindless automata, doomed to slavishly oblige our instincts and impulses.
At the age of four, children have a basic understanding of gender differences and expectations. But it is unlikely they would knowingly be sexist.
A difference in psychology could explain the difference in rewards.
Recent research raised concerns about girls' stereotypes on their gender's lack of 'brilliance.' But an overlooked finding suggests boys also hold hindering stereotypes about themselves in school.
A 1992 paper predicted that if women's running performance continued to improve as rapidly as it had since the 1920s, top women athletes would soon be running as quickly as the men.
Whether gendered toys are creating stereotypes or just playing to boys' and girls' innate differences is a vexed question.
Public engagement of academics has increased enormously in recent decades. But this new level of engagement is producing problems and conflicts for which many academics are ill-prepared.
What produces the differences between men and women? Are they trivial or profound? Are they genetic or environmental, or both? And are men really closer genetically to chimpanzees than to women?