When planning major infrastructure investments, it's important to know which road, freight and information networks are most important – and which proposals might make things worse, not better.
Forget solid, liquid, gas. This research used advanced math to theorize about topological phases of matter. And over the years experiments with matter and cold atoms have been validating the ideas.
How Messrs Thouless, Haldane and Kosterlitz could hold the key to the future.
There's no Nobel Prize in mathematics, but math undergirds much high-level science. The 2016 Nobel in Physics rewards work in topology, a branch of math with multiple real world applications.
Don't worry, understanding the work is a piece of cake. But it may make you hungry.
Collect all the data you want, but if you can't figure out what you're looking at, it's useless. Topologists look for spatial relationships to figure out what the data can tell us.