Technology, such as satellite systems, can be used for both military and scientific purposes.
‘Dual use’ technology – technology used for both peaceful and military purposes – is allowed in Antarctica, according to the treaty.
Since the last ice age, the ice sheet retreated over a thousand kilometres in the Ross Sea region, more than any other region on the continent.
New research shows that ocean and air temperatures both contributed to the melting of Antarctica's Ross Ice Shelf in the past, but melting from below by a warming ocean became more important over time.
A wild leopard seal on South Georgia.
Cooperation or theft? New observations show wild leopard seals sharing food when targeting king penguins in Antarctica.
One of two underwater gliders is deployed from a research ship into Antarctic waters.
Sending autonomous vehicles to the Southern Ocean can be fraught with anxiety, especially if one of them doesn't make radio contact when it's supposed to.
Scientists measured the thickness and basal melt of the Ross Ice Shelf.
Parts of Antarctica's largest ice shelf are melting ten times faster than the rest of the shelf, and solar heated waters below the ice are to blame.
Emperor penguins have uniquely adapted to their Antarctic home.
Emperor penguins have a few hidden tricks to stay warm, like blood vessels in the nose arranged so they can regain most of the heat that would be lost by breathing.
A small boat in the Illulissat Icefjord is dwarfed by the icebergs that have calved from the floating tongue of Greenland’s largest glacier, Jacobshavn Isbrae.
Sea levels could rise by two metres by 2100, sparking a refugee crisis unlike anything the world has ever seen.
The research vessel must dodge dangerous icebergs as it drills for sediment core samples.
A paleooceanographer describes her ninth sea expedition, this time retrieving cylindrical 'cores' of the sediment and rock that's as much as two miles down at the ocean floor.
The Casey Station is part of Australia’s permanent outpost in Antarctica.
Buildings and human disturbance in Antartica is clustered in an ice-free zone that is essential to most of the continent's biodiversity.
A new climate model combines data on ice loss from both polar regions for the first time.
Climate scientist predict that the combined effect of ice loss in Greenland and Antarctica will be more extreme weather, with impacts on agriculture, infrastructure and human life itself.
Sea ice responds to changes in winds and ocean currents, sometimes with origins thousands of kilometres away.
Antarctic sea ice cover fell to an all-time low recently and hasn't yet recovered. Why? The initial answers could lie in an unlikely place – the tropics.
The Antarctic Circumpolar Current keeps Antarctica cold.
The Antarctic Circumpolar Current provides a barrier to heat that keeps warm subtropical waters away from Antarctica. Yet, there are a few places where the heat gets through.
Few work environments offer greater isolation than Antarctica.
Isolation at work can be unhealthy. But it can also be a good thing – as this researcher found out when he walked solo from Melbourne to Sydney.
Brazil, home to the Amazon, is one of just five ‘mega-wilderness’ countries.
More than two-thirds of Earth's remaining wilderness is in the hands of just five countries, according to a new global map. A concerted conservation effort is needed to save our last wild places.
In Antarctica, many countries want a piece of the action.
There are some limits on what countries can do in the Antarctic, but not when it comes to science.
Aerial shot shot of the rectangular iceberg found off the Larsen 3 ice shelf.
Geometric icebergs can form around Antarctica, although such a perfect rectangle is unusual.
The Aurora lying at anchor in Commonwealth Bay, Antarctica in 1913.
National Library of Australia
Sidney Jeffryes achieved a world first by establishing wireless contact between Antarctica and Australia. But his mental illness meant he gradually vanished from history - until now.
Lush moss beds in East Antarctica’s Windmill Islands.
Mosses are the only plants that can withstand life in East Antarctica's frozen landscape. But a new study shows that life is getting even harder, as ozone loss and climate change make conditions even drier.
Most people will never visit Antarctica but music can evoke the continent in myriad ways.
Photo: Meredith Nash
Scientific research into the effects of climate change in Antarctica - and its history of intrepid exploration - is inspiring contemporary Australian composers.
In contrast to common perceptions, Antarctic seafloor communities are highly diverse. This image shows a deep East Antarctic reef with plenty of corals, sponges and brittlestars. Can you spot the octopus?
Australian Antarctic Division
Life on the Antarctic seafloor is surprisingly diverse – and half of the species live nowhere else on Earth. Now scientists can accurately map this unique biodiversity.